Earth scientists study the interactions of the geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere in terms of Earth’s history and the processes that occur here. Many earth scientists are considered to be geologists. According to the National Science Foundation, about 125,000 geoscientists work in the United States. Many geoscientists are employed by industries related to oil and natural gas, mining, and water resources.
Many others are work for federal and state government agencies. Agencies include the U.S. Geological Survey (Department of the Interior), Department of Energy, U.S. Forest Service (Department of Agriculture), National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (Department of Commerce), Environmental Protection Agency, and the Army Corps of Engineers. State geological surveys or departments dealing with the environment and natural resources all employ geoscientists.
Degree requirements (PDF)